Art Term: Pointillism

 Lets all shout ‘yay’ for the second art term post— YAY! The topic for this one is: Pointillism. “Yay pointillism!”

George Seurat, “A Sunny Day on La Jatte.” 1884-1888

Pointillism is a technique and style of painting invented by the  French painters Georges-Pierre Seurat and Paul Signac in 1886. The objective of pointillism is to create the illusion of your subject/solid space by using dots, only dots, and nothing but dots, of any pure color or size. This technique relies optics, utilizing both the art’s and the viewer’s perceptive ability of eye and mind to optically blend the color spots into a fuller range of tones. This is similar to the four-color CMYK printing process used by some color printers and large presses that place dots of Cyan (blue), Magenta (red), Yellow, and Key (black). Televisions and computer monitors use a similar technique to depict images using red, green, and blue (RGB) colors. Today artists can achieve this effect with a variety of tools, such as a pen, pencil or tiny paint brush; but the image must be rendered through the application of pure pigment with small distinctive dots (points).  As you can imagine this is a very time consuming and meticulous process requiring patience and discipline.

Seurat made pointillism famous when he debuted his painting Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte(1884-1888) at the eighth annual and final Impressionist exhibition in 1886. It took two years of painstaking dot application for Seurat to finish the painting, which immediately changed the course of vanguard painting by initiating a departure from Impressionism that came to known as “Neo-Impressionism” and later inspired Divisionism. (But in general discussion you can refer to Pointillist painters as post-Impressionsits, remember from that other post?)

However, Seurat’s painting received a withering reception within Impressionist circles. Seurat’s innovation was a deliberate challenge to Impressionism’s first practitioners, such as Renoir and Monet.  Impressionist critics and artists disliked Pointillism because the technique was a flagrant departure from traditional methods of blending pigments on a palette. Impressionism was all about creating images with a variety of brushstrokes, and Pointillism removed brushstrokes all together thus eliminating texture and the ever venerated “hand of the artist.” Art critics even intended the name “Pointillism” to ridicule these paintings— though it no longer carries that earlier mocking connotation.

Signac became Seurat’s faithful supporter, friend, and successor by embracing Pointillism to develop his own color theory. Signac’s color theory became the foundation for his more technical adaptation, Divisionism. They differ in that Pointillism is concerned about the mechanics of dot-work used to apply the paint, not necessarily the science of color separation. Divisionism is concerned specifically with the science of color separation and  juxtaposition of small dots of pure color.  Either way, both are concerned with the additive aspect of light and color, much like the RBG image you are staring at on your screen right now.

Paul Signac, “Portrait de Felix Feneon.” 1890

Pointillism continued to evolve through the experiments of later artists like Van Gogh, Jean MetzingerRobert Delaunay, Warhol and to some extent in Pop Art with Roy Lichtenstein‘s exploration of print media. Oh! And of course Yayoi Katsuma, remember? The technique is still used today, and even I did a dot drawing with ink in high school. Though with pointillism, the artist sacrifices depth and texture, the variety and richness of colors achieved after much diligence is simply stunning.

Van Gogh, “Self Portrait with Felt Hat.” 1887

Jean Metzinger, “La Dance (Bacchante).” 1906

Roy Lichtenstein “Drowning Girl.” 1963

Robert DeLaunay, “L’honne a la Tulip.” 1906

Henri-Edmund Cross “Madame Hector France.” 1901

Henri-Edmund Cross “La fuite des nymphes.” 1906

Joe aka Casa-nova, This pointilism portrait by artist Joe aka Casa-nova took over 50 hours to complete, 2010

Sakura Chrno “Sun.” contemporary

Claire Ellis, “untitled” contemporary

*Bonus: Pointillism is also a kind of music that developed in the mid to late 20th-century. Different musical notes are made in seclusion, rather than in a linear sequence, giving a sound texture similar to pointillism.  This type of music is also known as punctualism or klangfarbenmelodie.

  1.  “Pointillism.” Artcyclopedia. Artists by Movement. John Malyon/Artcyclopedia, 2007. Web. http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/pointillism.html
  2. Ruhrberg, Karl. “Seurat and the Neo-Impressionists”. Art of the 20th Century, Vol. 2. Koln: Benedikt Taschen Verlag, 1998. ISBN 3822840890.
  3.  Nathan, Solon. “Pointillism Materials.” Web. 9 Feb 2010. http://www.si.umich.edu/chico/emerson/pntmat.html
  4. Britannica – The Online Encyclopedia http://www.britannica.com/
Advertisements

Yayoi Kusama

Yayoi Kusama (b. 1929), Fireflies on the Water, 2002. Mirror, plexiglass, 150 lights and water, 111 × 144 1/2 × 144 1/2 in. (281.9 × 367 × 367 cm) overall. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

I am obsessed with Yayoi Kusama’s instillation art. She utilizes color and texture in a dynamic exploration of infinite space. Kusama creates the illusion of limitless space using polka-dots, lights, mirrors, water, and pattern to make endless reputations of texture, color and shape. She is able to trick our senses into perceiving her fictional environment— no matter how bizarre, garish, or fantastical— as reality. Right now she has exhibitions in three different countries, one at the Museum of Contemporary Art Shanghai (“A Dream I Dreamed”) until March, another in Japan at the Kochi Museum of Art (“Yayoi Kusama Eternity of Eternal Eternity”) until February, a third in New York  (“Yayoi Kusama I Who Have Arrived In Heaven”) through December, and the last in Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil in Rio de Janeiro (“Obsession Infinita”) through the end of January. But Kusama has had a dynamic career in a variety of mediums, she continuous to evolve her art making techniques while still exploring boundaries and space with pattern and color.

 

Yayoi Kusama, Driving Image (detail) (1959-64)

 

 

Kusama has had an incredibly successful international career. She started to paint around ten, creating richly textured paintings in watercolors, pastels, and oils using polka dots and nets as motifs. When she first arrived to the United States in 1957 she showed large paintings, soft sculptures, and environmental sculptures assembled from mirrors and electric lights. In the late 1960’s Kusama began to stage happenings in the US and Europe, such as body painting festivals, fashion shows, and anti-war demonstrations. In one happening she had participants dance to her choreography naked except for a painted polka dot pattern she applied. She also explored media-related activities, and in 1968 released the film “Kusama’s Self-Obliteration.” This film, in which Kusama produced and starred in, won a prize at the Fourth International Experimental Film Competition in Belgium and the Second Maryland Film Festival and the second prize at the Ann Arbor Film Festival. In 2008 her documentary film “Yayoi Kusama, I adore myself” released in Japan and  screened at international film festival and museum. 

 

Yayoi Kusama, Accumulation of Corpses (Prisoner Surrounded by the Curtain of Depersonalization) (1950)

 

 

 

In 1973 Kusama returned to Japan where she continued to produce and show art works. During this time she became interested on language and book artand issued a number of novels and anthologies. In 1983, the novel “The Hustlers Grotto of Christopher Street” won the Tenth Literary Award for New Writers from the monthly magazine Yasei Jidai. for the rest of the 70’s and to present, she continued to expand her art productions and held many solo exhibitions, retrospectives, and museum exhibits in Paris, Australia, New York, LA, London, Brazil, Denmark, Rome, Milan, Mexico City, China, Tokyo, Korea, New Delhi, and even participated in the 1993 45th Venice Biennale and the 2012 Sydney Biennale and Aichi Triennale. She has had her work recognized by many titles museums and associations the world over.

 

Yayoi Kusama, Infinity Mirrored Room – Love Forever (1996)

But perhaps being insanely prolific and successful does have its drawbacks. The rumor is that Kusama’s intensely patterned and bright art literally drove her insane. “Obsessions, phallus obsessions, obsessions of fear are the main themes of my art. Accumulation is how stars and earth don’t exist alone,” she explains. For the last forty years, she’s been a patient of a mental institution in Japan, where she continues to produce extraordinary works. This is an excerpt from project by filmmaker Heather Lenz, titled “Kusama Princess of Polka Dots.” Though the film remains unfinished, this 7-minute cut is a part of an exhibition on Kusama at London’s Tate Museum.